What is a Hybrid Engine? How Do Hybrid Electric Cars Work?
Hybrid technology, the newest engine type of our age, is a vehicle unit that has recently come to the fore and spread rapidly. In fact, although it was invented and presented to the world long ago, all projects were shelved due to pressure from oil producers. As you know, all of our vehicles run on fossil fuels. We can see the hybrid, which is the first electric infrastructure engine as an alternative to gasoline and diesel, as a war against air pollution.
We would like to tell you that the biggest representative of this new generation engine is the Japanese Toyota company. That’s why, while explaining what a hybrid engine is, we will talk about the technology developed by this brand. Apart from Toyota, many companies actively use electric motors, which all brands and models will switch to in the future.
What is a Hybrid Engine?
The hybrid engine is a unit type supported by an electric motor, one of which is gasoline. Its meaning is “hybrid”. Its discovery is attributed to global warming and the decline of gasoline reserves. We can think of all hybrid engines as a transition to electric vehicles. It is ensured that it is integrated into internal combustion engines and that the system acts on a common order. Under normal conditions, the fuel consumption of a gasoline unit without internal combustion support is higher than diesel vehicles.
With the hybrid engine support coming to gasoline, liter-based fuel consumption is equivalent to that of diesel-powered vehicles today. Hybrid is of great importance in reducing the toxic gases released into the nature. The new generation technological unit can move a vehicle alone. In other words, it has the feature of being activated independently from the gasoline engine. According to all electric motor vehicles, it can handle the charging itself. Hybrid batteries can return the energy that is released and wasted at certain times.
We can also think that the gasoline engine of our hybrid vehicles is used for charging in a way. Why do you think hybrid motor cars are preferred more than full electric vehicles today? One of the only and most logical reasons for this is the possibility of “charging”!
When we look at the situation roughly; The range of all-electric cars is currently between 200 and 600 km on average. There are hardly any charging stations in our country. It works actively in some European countries. And to fully charge a dead battery, we have to wait between 3 and 6 hours. In terms of usage, the hybrid motor vehicle does not have time-consuming elements such as charging and waiting. In the hybrid logic, you don’t have much range with only electrical energy, but this is actually tolerated since there is a constantly running source next to it.
All you have to do is brake! The logic of formation is completely based on this. It is to reveal the regenerative energy recovery event by braking. More broadly how recovery is and what is its place in hybrid engines How Does a Hybrid Engine Work? We will talk about it in our title.
How Does a Hybrid Engine Work?
First of all, we would like to summarize what we have mentioned above in part so that you can understand it more easily and have a better command of the event. The electric motor, which is integrated into a standard internal combustion engine, is fed by units that are usually placed on the axle part of the vehicle or under the engine hood. When we examine the technical details of our vehicles in the form of double-engine operation, we see that fuel consumption is less in the city and more on the inter-city roads. Because we do “braking” events more frequently in short distance use in the city. So stop-starts happen more often.
In this situation, which happens more, we increase the possibility of regenerative energy to be released. This is what we need to fill our batteries. We will now tell you the basic part of the subject, namely how the energy is provided. Electric motors have reverse forces created by mechanical movements. This reverse power is also called regenerative energy. If engineering did not find a solution to the released energy, it would be completely wasted.
The network connected to the brake part provides us with the kinetic energy we need by providing transformations suitable for the environment. It is also used in metro and tram systems, and its logic is in line with the system of passenger cars. Hybrid cars are seen as more urban in terms of usage. When we think about it, the speed limits to be made will be less than the highway speeds.
The speed of a hybrid engine with only electric power is between 50 km/h and 65 km/h. Therefore, when these limits are reached, the gasoline engine comes into play. Since the system is built on an intelligent loop, sudden departure etc. It also happens that the gasoline engine is activated instantly during movements. This part may change in the working logic of the companies. A system of hybrid motor vehicles is also provided with automatic transmission. At the core of the work, everything is connected to the automatic, together with the gear.
How Many Driving Modes Are There in Hybrid Motor Vehicles?
Automobile manufacturers have developed driving modes according to your usage patterns. And it all depends on future reactions. The driving modes in hybrid motor vehicles are as follows;
EV Driving Mode
It stands for Electric Vehicle. If we switch to EV in the first of the systems that are changed with the button, the vehicle will use the maximum electrical energy. In other words, the gasoline engine will be stopped from being active. The mode we usually talk about is activated in a closed garage and where quiet driving is desired. However, the extra comment we will make; Especially at take-offs, since the instantaneous torque created by the electric motor is higher, the take-offs will be faster than the gasoline ones.
ECO Driving Mode
As the name suggests, it is used when economical driving is desired. You can better understand how the system works automatically in this section. By switching to ECO mode, the accelerator pedal sensitivity of the vehicle is reduced. Apart from the engine, electrically operating elements in the vehicle are kept under control. For example, if the air conditioner running in ECO is running at full speed, it will be pulled down to the lower position. All of the things we mentioned happen automatically.
In this mode, which we will see as PWR in our hybrid vehicles, the gasoline engine is activated as much as possible and the vehicle turns at high speed. The most performance uses and maximum speed outputs are realized with PWR.
You should know about the Hybrid Engine;
After all, since it is a technology that has just entered our lives, some things are unknown in its working principles. One of these is the question of whether I can only move with an electric motor if I run out of gas. The answer we will give to this will be no. Because the system is not only built on electricity. In order for the hybrid engine to be active, there must be a limit level of gasoline fuel. LPG application to vehicles with gasoline + hybrid engines is also a curious thing.
In fact, it is said that the system allows this, but for now it is not known how the vehicle will react or react. Electric shocks are not experienced in cars with electric systems in case of entering a puddle or being in a flood. Likewise, in case of cable or short circuit, the system shuts down thanks to the protection mode. Contrary to what we know, hybrid vehicles do not “have” rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Instead, nickel metal batteries are used, which are more durable and durable. Again, we would like to point out that this part may vary according to the companies.
What is Plug-in Hybrid?
The plug-in engine is an alternative type that is positioned right in the middle of the all-electric and hybrid engine. Unlike the hybrid, the vehicle batteries can be charged with the help of a cable from the external network. At the same time, you are offered 3 different types of fuel. While only plug-in charging is used in all-electric cars, the plug-in engine offers the opportunity to charge the hybrid batteries faster. The most common vehicles we know are the Chevrolet Bolt and Toyota Prius produced by GM.
History of the Hybrid Engine
We may think that the hybrid engine technology will emerge in the near future. The first patent in this area was taken by H. Patton in 1889. It has been used in vehicles such as railways and boats. The first electric assisted engine, built with a simple logic, is based on the battery connected to the gasoline unit and the generator structure that allows it to be charged. However, it is also said that the invention of the hybrid was invented in 1900 by Ferdinand Porsche in its most advanced form. Because in the same year, electric motor-based buses were sold to England, except for 4WD cars.
When we come to the regenerative energy part; With the system developed by American Motors Amitron in 1967, vehicles were able to charge the batteries by braking. By the 1970s, the HEV (hybrid electric vehicle) was once again developed by Victor Wouk, the “Hybrid Father”. In fact, well-established companies such as Audi, Ford and General Motors made experiments in this field in those years. In recent history, the modern hybrid engine was first developed by the Toyota company and used in its models. And the model with the highest sales in mass production figures is the Prius. The HEV engine was used in Toyota’s Prius in 1997 and 300 units were produced.
In the last 3 years, the production capacity has been increased to 19,500 units. By 2008, it was the “world’s best-selling hybrid car”. Because the numbers were showing 1 million units. The hybrid, which is constantly being developed, has been used by Honda and Toyota’s luxury segment Lexus this time. Especially in the 2000s, all companies entered electric vehicle production with a great speed towards oil reserves and atmospheric pollution, which are said to have decreased.